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This article is intended for enterprise and education network administrators.

Apple products require access to the Internet hosts in this article for a variety of services. Here's how your devices connect to hosts and work with proxies:

  • Network connections to the hosts below are initiated by the device, not by hosts operated by Apple.
  • Apple services will fail any connection that uses HTTPS Interception (SSL Inspection). If the HTTPS traffic traverses a web proxy, disable HTTPS Interception for the hosts listed in this article.

Make sure your Apple devices can access the hosts listed below.

Apple Push Notifications

Learn how to troubleshoot connecting to the Apple Push Notification service (APNs). For devices that send all traffic through an HTTP proxy, you can configure the proxy either manually on the device or with a configuration profile. Beginning with macOS 10.15.5, devices can connect to APNs when configured to use the HTTP proxy with a proxy auto-config (PAC) file.

Device setup

Access to the following hosts might be required when setting up your device, or when installing, updating or restoring the operating system.

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
albert.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSDevice activationYes
captive.apple.com443, 80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSInternet connectivity validation for networks that use captive portalsYes
gs.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSYes
humb.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSYes
static.ips.apple.com443, 80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSYes
sq-device.apple.com443TCPiOS onlyeSIM activation
tbsc.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSYes
time-ios.apple.com123UDPiOS and tvOS onlyUsed by devices to set their date and time
time.apple.com123UDPiOS, tvOS, and macOSUsed by devices to set their date and time
time-macos.apple.com123UDPmacOS onlyUsed by devices to set their date and time

Device Management

Network access to the following hosts might be required for devices enrolled in Mobile Device Management (MDM):

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
*.push.apple.com443, 80, 5223, 2197TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSPush notificationsLearn more about APNs and proxies.
gdmf.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSUsed by an MDM server to identify which software updates are available to devices that use managed software updatesYes
deviceenrollment.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSDEP provisional enrollment
deviceservices-external.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOS
identity.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSAPNs certificate request portalYes
iprofiles.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSHosts enrollment profiles used when devices enroll in Apple School Manager or Apple Business Manager through Device EnrollmentYes
mdmenrollment.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSMDM servers to upload enrollment profiles used by clients enrolling through Device Enrollment in Apple School Manager or Apple Business Manager, and to look up devices and accountsYes
setup.icloud.com443TCPiOS onlyRequired to log in with a Managed Apple ID on Shared iPad
vpp.itunes.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSMDM servers to perform operations related to Apps and Books, like assigning or revoking licenses on a deviceYes

Apple School Manager and Apple Business Manager

Network access to the following hosts as well as the hosts in the App Store section is required for full functionality of Apple School Manager and Apple Business Manager.

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HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
*.school.apple.com443, 80TCP-Schoolwork Roster service-
ws-ee-maidsvc.icloud.com443, 80TCP-Schoolwork Roster service-
*.business.apple.com.443, 80TCP-Apple Business Manager-
isu.apple.com443, 80TCP--

Software updates

Make sure you can access the following ports for updating macOS, apps from the Mac App Store, and for using content caching.

macOS, iOS, and tvOS

Network access to the following hostnames are required for installing, restoring, and updating macOS, iOS, and tvOS:

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HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
appldnld.apple.com80TCPiOS onlyiOS updates
configuration.apple.com443TCPmacOSRosetta 2 updates-
gg.apple.com443, 80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSiOS, tvOS, and macOS updatesYes
gnf-mdn.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlymacOS updatesYes
gnf-mr.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlymacOS updatesYes
gs.apple.com443, 80TCPmacOS onlymacOS updatesYes
ig.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlymacOS updatesYes
mesu.apple.com443, 80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSHosts software update catalogs
ns.itunes.apple.com443TCPiOS onlyYes
oscdn.apple.com443, 80TCPmacOS onlymacOS Recovery
osrecovery.apple.com443, 80TCPmacOS onlymacOS Recovery
skl.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlymacOS updates
swcdn.apple.com80TCPmacOS onlymacOS updates
swdist.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlymacOS updates
swdownload.apple.com443, 80TCPmacOS onlymacOS updatesYes
swpost.apple.com80TCPmacOS onlymacOS updatesYes
swscan.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlymacOS updates
updates-http.cdn-apple.com80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOS
updates.cdn-apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOS
xp.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSYes

App Store

Access to the following hosts might be required for updating apps:

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
*.itunes.apple.com443, 80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSStore content such as apps, books, and musicYes
*.apps.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSStore content such as apps, books, and musicYes
*.mzstatic.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSStore content such as apps, books, and music
itunes.apple.com443, 80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSYes
ppq.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSEnterprise App validation

Content caching

Access to the following host is required for a Mac that uses macOS content caching:

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
lcdn-registration.apple.com443TCPmacOS onlyContent caching server registrationYes
serverstatus.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSContent caching client public IP determinationYes

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Apple Developer

Access to the following hosts is required for app notarization and app validation.

App notarization

Starting with macOS 10.14.5, software is checked for notarization before it will run. In order for this check to succeed, a Mac must be able to access the same hosts listed in the Ensure Your Build Server Has Network Access section of Customizing the Notarization Workflow:

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HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
17.248.128.0/18443TCPmacOS onlyTicket delivery
17.250.64.0/18443TCPmacOS onlyTicket delivery
17.248.192.0/19443TCPmacOS onlyTicket delivery

App validation

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
*.appattest.apple.com443TCPiOS and macOSApp validation, Touch ID and Face ID authentication for websites-

Feedback Assistant

Feedback Assistant is an app used by developers and members of the beta software programs to report feedback to Apple. It uses the following hosts:

HostsPortProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
fba.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSUsed by Feedback Assistant to file and view feedbackYes
cssubmissions.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSUsed by Feedback Assistant to upload filesYes
bpapi.apple.com443TCPtvOS onlyProvides beta software updatesYes

Apple diagnostics

Apple devices may access the following host in order to perform diagnostics used to detect a possible hardware issue:

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
diagassets.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSUsed by Apple devices to help detect possible hardware issuesYes

Domain Name System resolution

In order to use encrypted Domain Name System (DNS) resolution in iOS 14, tvOS 14, and macOS Big Sur, the following host will be contacted:

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HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
doh.dns.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSUsed for DNS over HTTPS (DoH)Yes

Certificate validation

Apple devices must be able to connect to the following hosts to validate digital certificates used by the hosts listed above:

HostsPortsProtocolOSDescriptionSupports proxies
crl.apple.com80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
crl.entrust.net80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
crl3.digicert.com80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
crl4.digicert.com80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
ocsp.apple.com80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
ocsp.digicert.com80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
ocsp.entrust.net80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
ocsp.verisign.net80TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validation
valid.apple.com443TCPiOS, tvOS, and macOSCertificate validationYes

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Firewalls

If your firewall supports using hostnames, you may be able to use most Apple services above by allowing outbound connections to *.apple.com. If your firewall can only be configured with IP addresses, allow outbound connections to 17.0.0.0/8. The entire 17.0.0.0/8 address block is assigned to Apple.

HTTP proxy

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You can use Apple services through a proxy if you disable packet inspection and authentication for traffic to and from the listed hosts. Exceptions to this are noted above. Attempts to perform content inspection on encrypted communications between Apple devices and services will result in a dropped connection to preserve platform security and user privacy.

Cached

  • See a list of TCP and UDP ports used by Apple software products.
  • Find out which ports are used by Profile Manager in macOS Server.
  • Learn about macOS, iOS, and iTunes server host connections and iTunes background processes.
  • Customize the Notarization Workflow.