Sulfur Valence Electrons

The carbon atom's four valence electrons can be shared by other atoms that have electrons to share, thus forming covalent (shared-electron) bonds. They can even be shared by other carbon atoms, which in turn can share electrons with other carbon atoms and so on, forming long strings of carbon atoms, bonded to each other like links in a chain. Total valence electrons given by two oxygen atoms = 6. 2 = 12 Total valence electrons given by sulfur atom = 6. 1 = 6 There are no charges in SO 2 molecule. Therefore, no addition or reduction of valence electrons due to charges.

Element Sulfur - S

Comprehensive data on the chemical element Sulfur is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Sulfur. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. In addition technical terms are linked to their definitions and the menu contains links to related articles that are a great aid in one's studies.

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Overview of Sulfur

  • Atomic Number: 16
  • Group: 16
  • Period: 3
  • Series: Nonmetals

Sulfur's Name in Other Languages

  • Latin: Sulphur
  • Czech: Síra
  • Croatian: Sumpor
  • French: Soufre
  • German: Schwefel - e
  • Italian: Solfo
  • Norwegian: Svovel
  • Portuguese: Enxôfre
  • Russian: Сера
  • Spanish: Azufre
  • Swedish: Svavel

Atomic Structure of Sulfur

  • Atomic Radius: 1.09Å
  • Atomic Volume: 15.5cm3/mol
  • Covalent Radius: 1.02Å
  • Cross Section (Thermal Neutron Capture) σa/barns: 0.53
  • Crystal Structure: Orthorhombic
  • Electron Configuration:
    1s2 2s2p6 3s2p4
  • Electrons per Energy Level: 2,8,6
    Shell Model
  • Ionic Radius: 0.37Å
  • Filling Orbital: 3p4
  • Number of Electrons (with no charge): 16
  • Number of Neutrons (most common/stable nuclide): 16
  • Number of Protons: 16
  • Oxidation States: ±2,4,6
  • Valence Electrons: 3s2p4
    Electron Dot Model

Chemical Properties of Sulfur

  • Electrochemical Equivalent: 0.299g/amp-hr
  • Electron Work Function:
  • Electronegativity: 2.58 (Pauling); 2.44 (Allrod Rochow)
  • Heat of Fusion: 1.7175kJ/mol
  • Incompatibilities:
  • Ionization Potential
    • First: 10.36
    • Second: 23.33
    • Third: 34.83
  • Valence Electron Potential (-eV): 160

Physical Properties of Sulfur

  • Atomic Mass Average: 32.066
  • Boiling Point: 717.9K 444.75°C 832.55°F
  • Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion/K-1: 74.33E-6
  • Conductivity
    Electrical: 5.0E-24 106/cm Ω
    Thermal: 0.00269 W/cmk
  • Density: 2.07g/cc @ 300K
  • Description:
    Solid pale yellow non-metal that is stable in air and water but burns if heated.
  • Elastic Modulus:
    • Bulk: 7.7/GPa
  • Enthalpy of Atomization: 278.7 kJ/mole @ 25°C
  • Enthalpy of Fusion: 1.72 kJ/mole
  • Enthalpy of Vaporization: 9.62 kJ/mole
  • Flammablity Class:
  • Freezing Point:see melting point
  • Hardness Scale
    • Mohs: 2
  • Heat of Vaporization: kJ/mol
  • Melting Point: 388.51K 115.36°C 239.65°F
  • Molar Volume: 15.5 cm3/mole
  • Optical Refractive Index: 1.001111
  • Physical State (at 20°C & 1atm): Solid
  • Specific Heat: 0.71J/gK
  • Vapor Pressure = [email protected]°C

Regulatory / Health

  • CAS Number
    • 7704-34-9
  • OSHAPermissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • OSHA PEL Vacated 1989
    • No limits set by OSHA
  • NIOSHRecommended Exposure Limit (REL)
    • No limits set by NIOSH
  • Levels In Humans:
    Note: this data represents naturally occuring levels of elements in the typical human, it DOES NOT represent recommended daily allowances.
    • Blood/mg dm-3: 1800
    • Bone/p.p.m: 500-2400
    • Liver/p.p.m: 7000-12000
    • Muscle/p.p.m: 5000-11000
    • Daily Dietary Intake: 850-930 mg
    • Total Mass In Avg. 70kg human: 140 g
  • Discovery Year: Unknown
  • Name Origin:
    Latin: sulphurium (brimstone), Sanskrit sulvere
  • Abundance of Sulfur:
    • Earth's Crust/p.p.m.: 260
    • Seawater/p.p.m.: 870
    • Atmosphere/p.p.m.: N/A
    • Sun (Relative to H=1E12): 1.6E+07
  • Sources of Sulfur:
    Found in pure form and in ores like cinnabar, galena, sphalerite and stibnite. Also recovered from H2S of natural gas. Annual world production is around 54,000,000 tons. Primary mining areas are USA and Spain.
  • Uses of Sulfur:
    Used in matches, gunpowder, fireworks, batteries, vulcanization of rubber, medicines, permanent wave lotion and pesticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
  • Additional Notes:

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A list of reference sources used to compile the data provided on our periodic table of elements can be found on the main periodic table page.

Related Resources

  • Anatomy of the Atom
    Answers many questions regarding the structure of atoms.
  • Molarity, Molality and Normality
    Introduces stoichiometry and explains the differences between molarity, molality and normality.
  • Molar Mass Calculations and Javascript Calculator
    Molar mass calculations are explained and there is a JavaScript calculator to aid calculations.
  • Chemical Database
    This database focuses on the most common chemical compounds used in the home and industry.

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How many valence electrons can Sulfur hold?

Now sulfur has 6 unpaired electrons which means it can form 6 covalent bonds to give a total of 12 electrons around its valence shell. So in addition to being octet, sulfur can expand octet to have 10 or 12 electrons.

Can sulfur have more than 8 valence electrons?

Unlike atoms from periods one and two that only have the s and p orbitals (total of 8 valence electrons), atoms like phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine can have more than 8 electrons because they are not restricted to the s and p orbitals and have a d orbital for additional electrons needed for bonding.

Does sulfur have 16 valence electrons?

Sulfur has 6 valence electrons located in its outermost orbit. When looking at the sulfur atom, it contains 16 total electrons.

Does sulfur have 7 valence electrons?

Explanation: Sulfur has six valence electrons. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons which, therefore, are located on the highest energy levels.

Why does boron only need 6 valence electrons?

Boron has a charge of 5. This is balanced by 5 electrons. The valence electrons may participate in bonding through sharing with other atoms, to make three bonds. Three bonds = six electrons.

Why can phosphorus make 5 bonds?

Phosphorus can have expanded octet, because it can shift it’s lone pair electrons (3s orbital electrons) to empty 3d obital during excited state and thus can form 5 bonds.

Why can an atom only have 8 valence electrons?

The octet rule refers to the tendency of atoms to prefer to have eight electrons in the valence shell. When atoms have fewer than eight electrons, they tend to react and form more stable compounds.

Why does the third shell have 8 electrons?

The electron capacity of the third shell is 8, when there are no shells above it. And that is the case for all elements in the third period. It is only when there are outer shells surrounding it that the third (or higher) shell has a higher capacity.

Sulfur Valence Electrons Shell

Why is the maximum number of valence electrons 8?

Generally, the maximum number of electrons that the outermost shell of an atom can have is 8 (eight). This is called an octet and the restriction is because the valence electrons are generally from the s and p orbitals which can have a maximum of 8 electrons.

What is the charge for sulfur?

1.17: Ions

ElementProtonsNet Charge
Potassium atom19
Potassium ion19+1
Sulfur atom16
Sulfur ion16−2

How do you find the Valency of Sulphur in SO2?

Sulphur has the atomic number of 16. Its electronic configuration is 2,8,6. The valency of S depends upon its oxidation state and with which element it reacts. For example, the valency of S in SO2 is +4 and in SO3 is +6.

Sulfur Valence Electrons In Sulfate

Does sulfur have 3 valence electrons?


Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost principal quantum level of an atom. Sometimes, the outermost energy level is called the valence shell. The outer energy level in this atom is n = 3. It holds six electrons, so sulfur has six valence electrons.

Sulfur Valence Electron Configuration

How many bonds can sulfur form?

Sulfur, like oxygen, frequently forms two bonds.

Does sulfur electron dot diagram have six dots?

Two negative charges means sulfur atom has gained two electrons so its electronic configuration is with 18 electrons (instead of 16). Lewis dot structure will have 4 paired dots around Sulfur atom.